Environmental education of citizenship in the domestic realities may become more important than the subject.
At the same time, the basic principle of civic education defined in the Spanish Constitution is the harmonization of traditions and innovations in all spheres of life. The Catholic Church also stressed that in some parts of the civic education is contrary to Christian values. At that time, the Spanish government did not take into account the position of opponents of the inclusion of topics related to homosexual relations in the content of civic education. However, in response to parental claims, most Spanish courts have ruled that the content of the subject "Civic Education and Human Rights" does not violate the Constitution of the country, so it can be taught in school.
According to official figures, in 2009-2010, more than a thousand Spanish students did not attend civic education classes due to their parents’ warnings. There were also frequent cases when courts revoked all student absences in this subject for disrespectful reasons, allowing students to take an exam in another subject. In 2011, Spain again held a discussion on this issue. The content of the civic education course has been changed to take into account the traditional values of Spanish culture. As the subject of Civic Education and Human Rights is approved by the Spanish Education Act, it is emphasized that in Spanish society it has the same value as the mother tongue or mathematics, despite differing views on its content that continue to exist.
A developed democracy presupposes that all members of society, regardless of their professional daily activities, must have adequate knowledge in the field of democratic citizenship. Therefore, to succeed in modern society, it is not enough for an individual to be a narrow specialist in a particular field.
Civic education is the best tool to achieve sustainable results in the development of democracy, as it allows to resolve controversial issues through dialogue in an effort to establish the principles of social justice in the country. The ability of Ukrainian citizens to reach a compromise through constructive social and political activity is much inferior to protest activities. However, a positive phenomenon is that the Ukrainian state has normatively confirmed the need for the development of civic competencies in students (fixed in law). However, the general public still lacks a clear idea of the content of these competencies and their significance. As it turned out, the environment (environment) of educational institutions, where civic consciousness is largely formed, does not fully perform this function. In general, students do not have a deep enough level of civic knowledge, poorly focused on civic participation.
In Ukraine, the introduction of civic education in the school process is characterized by amorphousness and eclecticism. It can be stated that teachers tell students about their rights and democracy, but the lack of project, activity and game approach does not contribute to the assimilation of these norms of civic behavior in the form of daily habits of students.
Civic education cannot be limited to direct teaching in a special subject, although it is difficult to do without it. Problems of citizenship development are important, so it is inevitable to reach them in the framework of many humanities: history of social sciences, literature. But sometimes the cross-curricular implementation of civic education can become caricatured. And this is one of the creative challenges of the development of civic competencies.
In the implementation of civic education through a subject approach, it is important to combine descriptive and reflective knowledge, transfer of methods of discussion and information, conflict resolution and negotiation. Classes in civic education within the subject approach should be transformed into public laboratories, in which students develop cooperation skills, show responsibility. Moreover, civic education should be determined not so much by the basics of social sciences (economics, political science, sociology, ethics), but by the real problems of society and communities.
Environmental education of citizenship in the domestic realities may become more important than the subject. Democracy cannot be taught without a democratic educational institution. The democratic way of life of the school provides for the organization of the educational process on a democratic basis, the participation of all members of the school community in the creation of norms and rules (so-called local legislation); the presence of elected governing bodies with the participation of teachers, students, the public; openness of decisions made; availability of practices aimed at solving the problems of local communities as a MANDATORY element of the educational space; development of collective creative projects that promote self-realization and expression of individuality. At the same time, the partnership between the student and the teacher as a senior friend, building new trusting relationships are also crucial.
Thus, civic education is a kind of social project of the whole educational institution. Ukraine should focus on a multi-subject model of civic education, in which the main participants and partners in the educational process should be: the state, public organizations, educational institutions and their self-government bodies, local communities, parents.
Civic education needs to expand its tools, make greater use of modern means of communication and information, as well as proper analytical content (increasing the diversity of research on this topic). It is important for civic education providers to constantly study the processes that arise in the field of education, as well as to analyze the general social context that affects the development of citizenship. A necessary element of improving civic education should be to strengthen communication about new opportunities in civic education, and thus the effectiveness of already implemented programs, building joint initiatives with the media to support public discussions on citizenship, promoting a model of constructive civic behavior.
An important issue, to which researchers pay little attention, is the inflated expectations of citizens who receive non-formal education in the field of civic knowledge. Sometimes citizens do not fully understand what is behind the names of training programs or other educational activities on the development of a culture of citizenship. They expect to hear very specific information from civic education providers, and instead receive, for example, an offer to consider a specific task and develop personal abilities in the process of joint activities. The understanding that civic education is, rather, some direction and motivation to move forward as a member of an active democratic society should be promoted. And the choice of pace, character, mode of movement is left to the choice of each citizen.
In our opinion, the basic level of civic education should be provided in schools. Regarding non-formal education programs on the topic of citizenship development, it is important that they be differentiated by age, depending on the information opportunities and free time of students – schoolchildren, youth, older people with some specific experience and others.
In the context of the realities of the XXI century. cooperation of public sector representatives with the authorities is important for civic education. Civil society in Ukraine is strong, but not so strong that, according to the CoE’s recommendations, it is able to cover a large part of mass civic education. The widespread introduction of experimental, cooperative, intercultural, and contextual approaches in educational practice seems promising. Information and knowledge education (political approach) makes the transition to competent and personal civic education, which creates opportunities for students to design their own lives in a democracy.
The more people take part in democratic processes, the better it will be for the whole society. However, civic education is only one of many conditions for strengthening democratic development. It will not be able to compensate for such important factors as a strong rule of law, the absence of corruption, independent courts, a free press, real control of the government through elections and an effective parliament. However, even without civic education, no democracy has a chance to become stable (consolidated), stable, long-lasting and maximally socially just.
In 1990, political scientist and philosopher R. Darendorf made the following forecast about the time it would take for the political, economic and state reorganization of post-communist countries: for the introduction of political democracy and the rule of law – 6 months, for the transition to a market economy – 6 years, for development of narrative speech ideas civil society – 60 years. Probably, it was even an optimistic forecast. Since the first and second trials in Ukraine took longer than R. Darendorf’s forecasts, it is obvious that the third one may take longer. We can agree with Robert Park’s statement that social institutions are not established, but "grow like trees." In order for a tree to grow, you need soil (foundation, tradition), a favorable climate (support, cooperation) and time. However, in terms of time, we did not want it to stretch according to the logic of the famous English proverb: "Foreign ambassadors asked the queen:" How to grow such a beautiful English lawn? The queen replied: water in the morning, cut in the evening. And so for 300 years. "How to grow an" English "lawn in Ukraine? – Water every day, cut every day. And so many years.
Inna Semenets-Orlova, Doctor of Science in Public Administration, expert of the Swiss-Ukrainian project "Development of Civic Competences in Ukraine – DOCCU", original on the website Educational Policy.
Vocational education institutions are recommended to conduct certification in remote form
Graduates of vocational schools will be certified remotely
Vocational education institutions, in which the release of recipients of education is planned during the imposed quarantine, are recommended to organize the state qualification certification in the distance form.